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A meeting with Protestant churches may lead to rejecting Catholicism and founding — as a sign of protest — your own religious community. The search for the Absolute may lead to finding it by contrast with Christianity. Obviously new religious movements should not be treated in terms of a threat to the Church, only their presence can encourage the activity of the Church, its openness to the intellectual and spiritual needs of the believers. The signs of the pluralisation of religious life in Poland referred to in this text do not contradict whatsoever the real and statistically documented domination of Catholicism, which in the public consciousness appears as an internally consistent monolith.
Nowe ruchy religijne. Bonowicz, W. Znak, 6. In: E. Barker ed. Nowe ruchy religijne i parareligijne w Polsce. Dymarczyk, E. Gazeta Wyborcza. Warszawa: CHAT. Nowe ruchy religijne w zwierciadle socjologii. Lublin: UMCS. Churches and Religious Associations in Poland. In: M. Hainz, G. Pickel, D. Pollack, M. Firlit Hrsg. Springer VS. In: R. Ra- dzik, B. Szajkowski, A. Wysocki ed. Mazur, K.
Mariawityzm w Polsce. Parkinson, C. London: Penguin. Pawluczuk, W. Zdanie, 1. Petrowa-Wasilewicz, A. Warszawa: KAW. Prokopiuk, J. Poezja, Rybak, S. Warszawa: Agencja Wydawnicza CB. Simpson, S. Native Faith. Polish Neo-Paganism at the Brink of the 21st Century.
Warszawa: PWN. Stark, R. Teoria religii. Tokarczyk, A. Warszawa: K. Wiench, P. Nowi poganie. The Constitution of the Republic of Poland. Polski nurt starokatolicyzmu. Internet source rodzimawiara. Like in other Western countries, it is currently no longer necessary for Brazilians interested in Buddhism to become a member of a well-defined religious community to study the teachings of the Buddha, follow Buddhist ethics, or become familiar with a spiritual practice formerly transmitted within hierarchal lines of sub- mission.
E-mail: usarski pucsp. Under these circumstances, researchers of Western Buddhism are well ad- vised to overcome their habitual focus on the institutional manifestations and iden- tifiable forms of membership.
However, from a sociological standpoint, there are good reasons to doubt whether the classical image of Buddhism as a relatively clear identifiable religious system really corre- sponds to the dynamics and configuration within the contemporary religious field.
All this means that researchers of Western Buddhism including contempo- rary Buddhism in Brazil are challenged by an expanded empirical and theoretical horizon. The following paragraphs deal with three elements of this spectrum. Firstly, the reader will find a succinct description of the market-niche Buddhism has conquered in Brazil.
Next come observations about the process through which religious elements of Buddhist origin are transformed into commodifiable goods and services. The final part gives some answers to the question of what the evo- lution of a market of Buddhist-connoted products means for institutionalized Bud- dhism in Brazil.
The two interre- lated key-questions in this context are about a the social surroundings in which the production of religious goods and services are produced and offered and b the audiences that are addressed by the suppliers Stolz, In order to reduce complexion one can think of a continuum marked by two extreme ends. One side alludes to Buddhist communities that produce religious goods and services for the usage of its members. In this case there is no or only a little distinction between producers and consumers.
Both instances are overlapping. In both cases the audience can be mixed: it is possible that goods and services produced and consumed inside a religious community attract clients from outside the religious community. It is also possible that a product or service on the free market makes sense for a member Buddhist community because the signifi- cance of and benefit from the acquired good or service is in harmony with his or her faith and the plausibility structure of the religious group this consumer is com- mitted to.
The shop offers a vast spectrum of religious articles such as books, CDs, Buddha-Statues and Malas that in the first place are relevant for the adherents but — since they can be ordered via the Internet — may also attract clients who has nothing to do with the Temple Mandala.
The same is true for the firm, Dharma Books. However, DharmaBooks had no sin- gle volume in stock. Commercialization initiatives of Brazilian Bud- dhist entities which primarily but not exclusively address practitioners can also be found in terms of teaching or cultural activities of local Temples open for a general public.
A different type of commercialization initiatives of Brazilian Buddhists enti- ties consists of the supply of goods and services primarily designed for a non- Buddhist audience. One of his activities is directed to the business sector for which he offers talks on issues such as corporate communication, marketing, entrepreneurship or the labor market.
In some cases, the connection with Buddhism is radi- cally reduced to the enterprises name which means that visitors of institute such as Companhia Zen Companhia Zen…, s. The Spa Daissen, for exam- ple, offers courses on Zen-cuisine for those who are interested in combining the search for relaxation and exotic alimentation Cozinha Zen, , while the Pila- tes-instructors of the Bouddha-Spa enrich their western method through refer- ences to Oriental Philosophy and the implementation of Eastern Meditation and martial art-techniques Bouddha Spa, s.
Two studies are particularly useful in this context: firstly, the essay of Madhulika Banerjee, on Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals in the modern Market Banerjee, ; secondly, an article of Nurit Zaidman, Ofra Goldstein-Gidoni and Iris Nehemya on the process of introduction and packaging of spirituality for the religious mar- ket Zaidman, et. For analytical reasons one can distinguish seven logically inter-related constit- uents of the process of transformation of Buddhism into commodities, that is, a ab- straction, b parceling, c rearrangement, d recontextualization, e packaging, f curriculization and e validation.
The elements represent conceptual constructions in the sense of ideal-types. Empirically, this means that the elements are not neces- sarily found, neither in their pure form nor combined to a complete set. Rather, some are more basic and might occur more frequently than others.
Finally, the list does not suggest that the elements occur necessarily in a pre-defined sequence, although some of the elements are almost inseparably interconnected. Rephrasing this quotation one can state that the process of commercialization of religious products and services implies an emancipation of determined religious aspect from their original context. In this process, the organic symbiosis between certain doctrines or practices and the embracing symbolic-system that gives the single elements its specific meanings does no longer matter.
Once abstracted from its context, the elements assume an independent plau- sibility. However, when an interior designer places a Bud- dha in a specific environment he or she is not necessarily concerned with the reli- gious side. Rather, the image of Buddha humanizes the space Fernandes, What specific aspect is isolated depends on the character of the busi- ness or service offered on the market. While a shop like the Bazar Kamakura Ba- zar Kamakura, s.
This brings us to rearrangement. The most obvious issue here is holism. Spirituality in general addresses the human being as a whole, bringing segments together that from a modern point of view are segmented or even contradictory towards each other Knoblauch, In opposition, alternative medicine and workplace spirituality defend an integrative perspective in which the dichotomy of body and mind or workplace and private life are overcome.
The second principle refers to the arrange- ments through which these sets are offered on the market. The offer was dedicated to the philosophy of promoting the success of an economical enterprise and the harmonious coexistence and collaboration of the employees. Clients interested in these issues could sign in for the whole course composed of 12 meetings approximately Brazilian Reais [November ] or for only one specific unit Brazilian Reais. One of the most evident indicators of the desire to let both product and producer appear in a posi- tive light consists in the attempt to downplay the religious origin of a commodity and to emphasize its secular character.
Ronald Z. There are only rules of conduct that lead to human satis- faction and to a harmonious affiliation of human beings.
According to the resume he is not only a writer, but also an engineer, entrepreneur, lecturer and consultor Brito, s.
The focus of this succinct comments lies in the ambiguity of effects caused by the process of marketization. The central point in this context is that the commodification of Buddhist con- noted goods and services represent a severe challenge for the Buddhists institu- tions and authorities active in the respective temples and centers.
In a highly di- versified religious field such as Brazil, any religious branch can only survive if it submits itself to the dynamics of competition. Kardecism, in terms of statistics the third most relevant religious tradition in the country and due to doctrines, such as reincarnation and karma, is probably the severest rival for institutionalized Bud- dhism.
With the absorption of Buddhist ideas and practices by independent pro- viders, the competition aggravates for two interrelated reasons. Firstly, the spec- trum of suppliers of religious products expands aggravating competition by the numerical increase of alternatives. This creates a very different situation compared with the past.
None of these conditions are constitutive for the market. Banerjee, M. Contributions to Indian Sociology, 36 , Bauman, Z. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Blackwell. Empresas do Brasil. Brito, C. Borup, J. Branding Buddha. Journal of Global Buddhism, 17 , Bouddha Spa s. Bowman, M. Social Compass, 46 2 , Carvalho, R.
Consul- toria de Marketing. Cohen, E. Annual Review of Critical Psychology, 13, 1, Compahnia Zen. Consultoria em Qualidade de Vida s. Cozinha Zen , maio 3. Davie, G. Believing without Belonging. Le cas de Liverpool. Archives des sciences sociales des religions, 81 , Social Compass, 37 4 , Fernandes, T.
O Budismo no Brasil, Bodhisattva, 17 , Fine, M. Buddha in a Business Suit. Gelfer, J. Journal of Marxism and Interdisciplinary Inquiry, 4, 1 , Gross, P. Die Multioptionsgesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
Heine, S. S Introduction: Traditions and Transformations in Modern Buddhism. In: S. Heine, Ch. Prebish eds. Oxford: Oxford Uni- versity Press. Knoblauch, H. Fluide Religion: Eine Einleitung. In: D. Walthert eds. Theoretische und empirische Systematisierungen, Bielefeld: Transkript. Miller, V. Lon- don: Continuum. Nirvana s. Pollack, D. Faber, F. Hager eds. Kultur- und Religionssoziologie heute, Possamai, A.
Culture and Religion, 4, 1 , Soares, G. O biopoder na contemporaneidade. Sobre o Lama Padma Samten s. Social Compass 53 1 , Usarski, F. Historical overview and current trends. In: C. Dawson eds. The Brazilian Experience, Zaidman, N. Organization, 16 4 , However, until the 14th century, the presence of Islam in this part of Europe had been rather ran- dom and disorderly.
It was only after the Mongol state of Golden Horde became nominally Islamic in the 13th century its rulers started to profess Islam that contacts with Muslims intensified. Lithuanian princes fought against the Golden Horde to prevent its in- vasions of Lithuanian lands, but already in the 14th century the first Muslims, i.
E-mail: a. Nalborczyk in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for various reasons2. Some of them were brought as mercenaries to help the Lithuanians defend their territories from enemies. Troki area, it significantly increased the number of Tatars within Lithuanian borders Tyszkiewicz, 14ff; Borawski 6. They fought mainly against the Teutonic Order Borawski, , , e. In addition to land they were also granted the right to practice their religion and erect mosques Borawski, 43ff: Tyszkie- wicz, ff.
The number of Muslim settlers, both mercenaries and refugees, as well as prisoners of war, kept increasing during the whole of the 15th century, but it was the two subsequent centuries that saw the most significant influx of Muslims to Polish territories Tyszkiewicz, 15ff. Some historical sources assess the number of Muslims in Poland at that time at 40, people.
The ones who served in Tatar military units were granted fief and gained the status almost equal to the Polish- Lithuanian nobility, just as those who served at royal courts as interpreters and translators from oriental languages Borawski, There were also Tatars among city dwellers tradesmen, cart drivers, gardeners and servants on lordly estates Bohdanowicz, Chazbijewicz, Tyszkiewicz, 25ff.
Their settlements centred around Vilnius Pol. Wilno , Trakai, Hrodna Pol. Grodno and Nav- ahradak Pol. They fought in all major battles of the time4. The Con- stitution of 3 May finally granted them full political rights Bohdanowicz, Chazbijewicz, Tyszkiewicz, Sources say nothing about any major Christianization of Muslim Tatars.
At the same time, they kept the Arabic alphabet, which they used not only to write down Koran passages or prayers in Arabic5, but also for Polish texts, in combination with which it made a very unique kind of writing.
They used this script for handwriting kitabs compilations of various texts: hadith, prayers, rituals, leg- ends , tefsirs passages of the Koran with a translation into Polish etc. When the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth lost its independence at the end of the 18th century, the majority of Tatars came under Russian authority. Nalborczyk Around that time, other Muslims started coming to Poland.
Apart from soldiers there were also merchants, craftsmen mainly bakers and confectioners and clerks among the new immigrants Tyszkiewicz, It was for them that Muslim cemeteries were founded in Warsaw, one of which is still open. It is situated in Tatarska Street and is itself called the Tatar Cemetery7. World War I thinned the number of Tatars, the majority of whom were reset- tled deep in Russia. Polish Muslims enjoyed full freedom of worship but they did not have their all- Polish organization.
Before they were under the authority of the Mufti of Simferopol Crimea — head of the Taurida Muslim Spiritual Board Tyszkiewicz, , otherwise closed down after the Soviet army conquered Crimea in They were successful in their attempts.
However, it was only in that Islam was finally officially recognized by the Polish Parliament in the Act of 21 April , which defined the relationship between the State and the MZR see below 9. The Union was independent of any clerical or secular authorities, it gained legal entity.
In , the Mosque Building Committee was formed in Warsaw, but even though it was given a piece of land in Ochota the mosque was never erected Polish-Lithuanian Tatars were also willing to serve in the Polish army in the interwar period. The Tatar Uhlan Regiment was already formed in Armia Krajowa , in the Vilnius Area. The only three pre-war religious communities that remained within Polish lands were in Warsaw, Boho- niki and Kruszyniany.
However, due to postwar migrations, the Islamic popu- lation was dispersed. They were mostly students from Arab countries, but also from Iran or Afghanistan. Nalborczyk Ever since the Polish borders were re-opened in , new waves of Muslim immigrants have made their home in Poland. The majority of them are not migrant workers, but former students, mostly Arabs and their families. There are also political refugees among Mus- lims in Poland.
Next a sizeable group of refugees arrived from Chechnya, but many of them moved to Germany after receiving refu- gee status. There are also some recent refugees from Crimea, i. We have no exact data on the number of Muslims living in Poland, as people are not asked about denomination in the national census.
Estimated numbers differ de- pending on the source. The population of Tatars in Poland is estimated at thou- sand, and the number of immigrant Muslims at thousand.
These two num- bers amount to 0. Along with the demographic changes in the Muslim minority in Poland, their or- ganizations also underwent a transformation. In the s students from Arab countries were welcomed by its members and allowed to join the religious activities.
How- ever, tensioned between these two groups arose and in , the students formed the Muslim Students Association in Poland, the first Islamic organization since the establishment of the MZR, though of course with a different legal status. Since then more Islamic organizations have been established, first as associations and later as denominational organizations.
Muslim denominational organizations in Poland fall into two separate cate- gories: religious organizations acting on the basis of separate legal acts, and the remaining religious communities entered in the register of churches and other de- nominational organizations, functioning under the Act of 17 May on the Guarantees of Freedom of Conscience and Religion.
According to the Act, which is still legally binding, as the Sejm has never repealed it, the only religious organization for Polish Muslims is MZR, established in Apart from delineating the relationship between Muslims represented by MZR and the State, the Act defines the procedure of electing the Mufti, the High- est College of Muslims, imams leaders of communities and muezzins.
It is stated that candidates should have Polish citizenship and have both passive and active knowledge of Polish, as it is also the official language of MZR. High officials of MZR enjoy special rights that legislature grants to the clergy of all officially rec- ognized denominations.
The Act quotes the oath that leaders of MZR are obliged to take on the Koran, in which they pledge to be loyal citizens of Poland, contrib- ute to her wellbeing and obey the Constitution. The Act regulating the relation between the state and MZR, important as it is for rendering Islam an official denomination in Poland, is rather outdated in cer- tain aspects e.
This issue is being negotiated between MZR authorities and government representatives. Then there was no competent candidate. For more details see: Nalborczyk In present day Poland people can freely establish religious organi- zations. If they wish to receive legal entity, as well as rights and privileges envi- sioned by the state law for denominational organizations, they must register the or- ganization in the register of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration Pol.
To register a religious organization in the registry of churches and other de- nominational organizations there have to be at least petitioners who are Polish citizens The denominational organizations have the right to make their internal law and be self-governing, and the authorities cannot interfere in these processes. There are three orthodox organizations among those registered according to the Act of on the Guarantees of Freedom of Conscience and Religion: one Sunni — the Muslim League in the Republic of Poland Pol.
Islamskie Zgromadzenie Ahl-ul-Bayt — reg. The amended statute extended the right to be as- sociated in the organization to all persons with permanent residency in the country. It also participates in interfaith dialogue initiatives The organization is in charge of religious instruction in state schools and used to have the right to issue halal slaughter cer- tificates for meat products.
The post of the Mufti is a life title. This Sunni denominational community, established in , is the second largest Muslim religious organization in Poland with a seat in Warsaw.
Three years later, it was granted the status of legal personality and was entered into the record of churches and denominational communities. Its first president and the person who registered the organization was a Polish woman converted to Islam Polish law states that a denominational community can only be registered by a Polish citizen. The organization is now headed by Youssef Chadid. The Mufti and imams form the Council of Imams. Among the LM members are Muslims with Polish citizenship as well as those with the right of permanent or temporary residency in Poland.
This initiative has brought publicity to the LM and raised considerable controversy The main goals of the organization include: spreading the message of Islam, teaching and preserving the principles of the faith the League provides religion instruction in a state school , performing religious ser- vices, building and managing centres of worship and representing its members in Poland and abroad. The organization promotes integration with Polish society, while preserving Muslim identity at the same time, and seeks to foster interfaith dialogue.
Its beginnings go back to , when Poland was visited by Ayaz Khan, an Islamic missionary from India con- nected with the Ahmadiyya movement. In that time, the Union maintained contact with many Muslim organizations around the world, including the Ahmadiyya movement.
Today, it has about fifty members. Members of the Society are not only Polish Shiites, but also persons without Polish citizenship. Embracing the latter group is a manifestation of a change which took place in this organization. Its mission is to promote knowledge about Islam and integrate the Polish Muslim community. The Society is open to interreligious dialogue. It has called to life and coordinates the work of the Muslim Institute, which gathers reference literature and documents concerning Islam in Poland.
According to Ryszard Ahmed Rusnak, the founder and religious leader of the Assembly, the similarity in names was merely a coincidence. It follows these organizations with respect to doctrinal and ideological matters, as well as religious practice It has about fifty active members. The Assem- bly puts emphasis on the integration and activation of Muslim communities in the religious, political, cultural and economic life of the country. The statutory goals of the As- sembly include ecumenical, social, scientific and research, educational and charity activities.
As of now, the Assembly does not have an official journal. However, it has plans to publish books. The organization belongs to the Qadian group, which recognizes Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a prophet. Although many reference sources still perceive it as one of Muslim religious organizations, it should be treated as an unorthodox religious movement. The organization has about fifty members.
Some of the Islamic centres and prayer houses named on the official websites of the MZR and LM are used by members of both organisa- tions, or used by one but listed by both. Another new Islamic Centre was opened in Katowice in May A similar situation is in Gdansk. In Podlachia, the majority of the congregation is of Tatar origin. Polish Muslims often come to pray on Sundays it is allowed by the fatwa made by the Mufti of Poland , as only few of them can take a day off on Friday.
There are three traditional Muslim cemeteries still open in Kruszyniany, Bohoniki and in Warsaw the Tatar Cemetery. Moreover, special sections in com- munal cemeteries are allotted to Muslims.
Unlike in many Western European countries, Muslim burial is not a problem in Poland, mainly because Polish Mus- lims use coffins. Coffin-less burial would contravene sanitary-epidemiological regulations The ministerial regulation of states that a minimum of seven pupils having a particular religious affiliation in the same school is required in order for separate religious education classes to be provided.
In , the Ministry of Edu- cation approved a school curriculum for Muslim religious instruction prepared by the MZR. In Warsaw, the LM runs an interschool group for Muslim religious instruction at primary school level for pu- pils from the Mazowsze district Warsaw area In other parts of the country, religious education for Muslim children is provided by the local Muslim commu- nities independently of the school system weekend classes.
MZR, the second oldest Is- lamic religious organization in Europe is also recognized by the state and had its 90th anniversary in Muslims have their places of worship, Islam is taught in state schools, and there are Muslim cemeteries.
The Roman Catholic Church, the biggest Christian denomination in Poland, is more and more interested in an interreligious dialogue with Islam. The Council is lead jointly by a Catholic and a Muslim.
It organizes conferences that help increase general knowledge about the Islamic presence in the Mid-Eastern Europe and promote the idea of interreli- gious dialogue in Poland. In the eighteenth Day of Islam was celebrated. Therefore, it seems that the prospective influx of Muslims to Poland, espe- cially now with so many refugees from Syria, should not yield any logistic prob- lems and the incomers will be glad to find an existing religious infrastructure.
However, we should be aware that the different ethnic origin of the newcomers and their attitude to numerous religious issues different than that of the Tatars may cause and causes misunderstandings between the two groups. Such misunder- standings have already ended up in establishing a separate Sunni religious organ- ization, the LM. However, legislative means allowing and officially recognizing more than one Islamic organization may destroy the positive image and strong position of Muslims, which they have earned for centuries of their presence in Poland.
It may lead to a similar confusion that can be observed in numerous Western European countries, where multiplicity of religious organizations often of different ethnic origin renders dialogue between the state and Muslims very difficult. Borawski, P. Tatarzy w dawnej Rzeczypospolitej. Warszawa: LSW. Tatarzy polscy. Drozd, A. Warszawa: Res Publica Multiethnica. War- szawa: Res Publica Multiethnica. Jord, N. Lublin: Wyd. Konopacki, A.
Warszawa: Wyd. Warszawa: OOZK. Kowalski, T. Tatarzy litewscy. Historia meczetu w Wilnie. Teoria i praktyka badawcza. Filologiczny UMK. Naukowe w Toruniu. Warszawa: GUS. Tatarska legenda. Tatarzy polscy Nalborczyk, A. In: A. Zhelyazkova, E. In: J. Nielsen ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Islamic religious education in Poland — curricula and textbooks.
ASLAN ed. Frankfurt: Peter Lang. Mosques in Poland. Past and Present. In: K. Widening the European discourse on Islam, Warsaw: Warsaw University. Relations between Islam and the state in Poland: the legal position of Polish Muslims. Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 22 3 , Sobczak, J. Baecker, Sh. Kitab ed. Stu- dium historyczno-prawne. Czasopismo Prawno-Historyczne, 39 1 , Tyszkiewicz, J.
Tatarzy w Polsce i Europie. Tatarzy na Litwie i w Polsce. In Brazil, the belief in the contacts between the living and the dead acquired great importance, articu- lating it to the existing practices of invocation of the dead in certain African tra- ditions. Thus, the Spiritism imported from France soon came to be composed with the beliefs of the enslaved black Africans in Brazil, as well as with some practices of the ancient inhabitants of the land: the Indians.
Umbanda was the name of the religion that processed the beliefs of Africans and Indians, adding contributions of the dominant religion: Catholicism. Studying the Brazilian Catholic discourse on Spiritism in the first half of the 20th century, we come across a very important ally of the Catholic hierarchy in their fight against spiritual practices in Brazil: the medical and psychiatric dis- course. As a referential discourse, both in medical and in Catholic discourse, Spir- itism was associated with a monstrosity and linked to madness, subversion, crime.
E-mail: artur. In these discourses, practicing Spiritism was affirming the values of the smallest social groups, gravitating around the lack of culture. At a time when Brazilian psychiatric medicine deepened a willingness to intervene in the social reality, Spiritism was represented as the most serious pathogen. Madness appeared as one of the morbid consequences of promiscuity be- tween the living and the dead disseminated by Spiritism. Mediumistic practices about an uneducated, sick, weak, suggestible people are painted in the medical discourse of the time as catalysts of mental maladjustment who makea wide part of the population unproductive.
Intervention and interdiction of Spiritism, on the other hand, appeared as fully familiar measures for a church that insisted on disdaining popular organization, persisting on praising the dominance of the elite, who called themselves Catholic. Therefore, in the economy of the forces at stake in the first half of the 20th century, we have two allies doctors and priests , holders of a symbolic accumulation not negligible and united against Spiritism.
Spiritual activities appeared as complete deniers of the coherence of the self, of acting ra- tionally oriented. They were seen as practices that required the State repression and combative intervention of science.
Soon, a group of very significant doctors centered around Juliano Moreira, among them was the head of psychiatric medicine, Henrique Belford Roxo. In this paper, we focus on output of some of these doctors trained in this tradition and their comprehension of Spiritism. The influence of German psychiatry was apparent in Juliano Moreira, especially in his strive for objectivity, seeking, through observation, the – organic — etiology of mental ill- nesses Rocha, It was a model that sought the relationship between mental illness and specific personal injuries.
Hence, the interest in studying the relation- ship between madness and diseases such as syphilis, epilepsy, tuberculosis, lep- rosy. Hence, also, the interest in enhancing medical knowledge to dictate public policies of social intervention and management of urban space.
And, obviously, the interest in discursively building Spiritism as a disease, which, like syphilis and alcoholism, had to be eradicated. Medical intervention was based on the recogni- tion by the professionals of the time of the fact that both hereditary predisposition, and neurological damage and socioenvironmental conditions represented causes of mental disorders. Medical discourse was placed at the disposal of the State, as having the ability to predict the emergence of madness among population, diag- nose several infections, poisoning or traumatism that determined neurological damage and propose preventive measures, able to sanitize society Ponte, Sanitizing the urban space involved measures able to impose a rational planning, to remove the outbreaks of diseases, to exclude the visibility of beggars, prosti- tutes, and wonderers, by proposing regulatory and coercive acts.
It is within this qualifying effort that Juliano Moreira proposes preventive work to reverse the number of mental patients in the country, aiming at increasing the percentage of productive individuals in the population. The more urban they were and the more they produced, the more normal the Brazilian citi- zens would be. To Juliano Moreira, psychiatry had an important job to do in a mo- ment of national life marked by the rise of urban centers and industrialization. This concept has brought, among other conse- quences, the increase in the price of psychiatry as a discipline able to impose on the State partnership, in order to discipline and order urban space.
The theory of degeneration turned the interpretation of the mental illness much more complex. Believing in a normal person that degenerated hered- itarily, this theory started to advocate a range, a scale of pathological states. Juliano Moreira is quite a turn for Brazilian psychiatry, a real discontinuity Por- tocarrero, , by proposing a look at mental illness, no longer focused solely on madness as the nosology of the 19th century , but now on the concept of ab- normality. The service of forensic medicine, the medical discourse accredited as able to predict antisocial behavior, identifying the latent danger of the abnormal.
Although the concept of abnormality has not been clearly formulated from the conceptual point of view, there is a discontinuity that is established mainly after its emergence, in the late 19th century, as it belonged to the field of pathology, which extends to all individuals recognized as out of the social order, out of the norm, whether they are degenerates, criminals, idiots, or mentally disabled Portocarrero, At this point, doctors opposed to the court decisions in which the exercise of Spiritism was defended with the argument of religious freedom.
In Brazil, Spiritism is not practiced as a religion nor it is used to carry out scientific studies, as in other countries. What can be seen here, everywhere, is an organized industry with this label to exploit public credu- lity Ribeiro, Campos, Spiritism was seen from the point of view of anti-social manifestations, as a product of this monstrous urban environment, unpredictable and capable of cov- ering up abnormal behaviors. In the European 19th century, the city was already associated with monstrous representations, in which the crowd was regarded as an anonymous and brutal threat Bresciani, The doctors, making a relationship between city and physical and moral degeneration of the population, intended to intervene in society in order to solve the exhibition of epidemics, among which were epidemics of psychic origin.
The doctors linked Spiritism to the danger of these psychic epidemics. A place of looseness of morality, the urban environment was also seen as a place of danger.
In this sense, doctors found it unacceptable that Spiritism could count on 2It refers to the harmlessness nature of Spiritism advocated in some court sentences. As a public health issue, as evidence of abnormality, any lenience towards, or worse, connivance by the state with Spiritism was unacceptable for doctors.
Spiritism was associated with the unpredictable behavior of crowds, objects of attention and effort of dif- ferent discourses aimed at the urban order. The idea of a crowd, as it appeared in the writings of Gustave Le Bon and other authors read by Brazilian psychiatrists at the time, referred to a primarily psychological association in which rationality and judgment disappeared, establishing an impulsive, primitive and contagious behavior.
Le Bon himself was interested in the study of spiritual phenomena. These were telltales of a lower stage of human thought, based on the belief that it should be replaced, at a higher stage, by the knowledge Le Bon, As opposed to Le Bon, belief in knowledge, Spiritism was framed in the first category. As an enabler of unknown and primitive energies, Spiritism appeared as a danger, capable of causing mass hysteria crisis, turning calm men and women into human beasts.
Such epidemics arise during a general emotion, especially in meetings exclusively of women 5 where there are hysterical and degenerate people of all sorts. Produced by similar circumstances, mental disorders vanish if patients are separated. These epidemics have been mostly of a religious nature, or rather — supersti- tious Franco da Rocha, The police investigation reports the case of a woman who, after giving birth, began to show symptoms of a mental imbalance.
This accusatory index was very important if we think that the Republic arrived in Brazil in and was still consolidating insti- tutionally. On other hand, the last decades of the 19th and early 20th centuries wit- nessed the emergence of new social actors, such as anarchists and communists, still not articulated to the structure of the Republican power Carvalho, , Reading the spiritual phenomena as typical hysterical behavior, they stressed women as the main locus of mediumistic phenomena.
On other hand, this was a common element between Catholic discourse and medical discourse. Both put in evidence the importance of the female psyche for triggering medi- umistic trance Isaia, So, country people6 and black people were judged by Nina Rodrigues as incapable of both experiencing citizenship and of understanding the abstractions of the Republican formula, of Catholicism and of the theological content of Christianity Rodrigues, Juliano Moreira, in turn, re-evaluated the arguments of Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, denying the racial determinism contained therein.
In this respect, Kraepelin states: The manifestations of mental disorders found in our time concerning hypnotism and Spiritism have a certain relation with the processes of physical contamination. Excitations transmitted to these, the superstitious explanations, which join the mysterious practices are clearly for sensitive and weak natures, an obvious danger. Undoubtedly, predisposition also plays an essential part. That is why individuals who diligently participate in Spiritism and hypno- tism present great suggestibility to such experiences Apud Sampaio, If Juliano Moreira denied the racial determinism of Nina Rodrigues, this did not stop his followers to relate the experience of Spiritism to the practice of values, both of blackness and of abnormality, always linked to minor social classes.
Thus, Henry Roxo not only weaved the relation between blackness and Spiritism but also saw the black as physically and culturally incapable of matching up with the white elite in the full experience of citizenship. Many people gather in a small room. The medium is in the middle. The leader is next to the medium. The former persuades the latter and tells him to invoke a known spirit.
The medium starts to shiver and gives a loud cry. Very often, we see what is seen in the movie theater, in those African-American dances, with their extravagant dance moves, their contortions and gestures The spiritualist sessions very often finish with a nervous breakdown and a general state of excitement, more or less intense Roxo, The master Juliano Moreira openly disagreed with the explanation of racial degeneration and debated even with Raimundo Nina Rodrigues.
Moreira insisted that the enemies to fight against degenerations would be mainly the environment, health and educational conditions, as well as infestations, alcoholism and syphilis. Roxo linked the black condition both to physical and cultural inferiority.
According to him, because the black had inherited an undeveloped brain, they were not able to ac- credit to the full experience of citizenship, and were tied to atavistic origins, to opportunistic diseases, to a cultural heritage full of superstition. If the race as the explanation of degeneration was not totally abandoned, Roxo put the environment as a determinant factor of both evolution and degeneration: Suppose, however, that a black man, with this evil hereditary defect, is transported to an ad- vanced center and he and his wife had their offspring.
Let us also imagine that the offspring gradually progressed and, from father to child, an increasingly exercised and active brain was inherited. We can see that the environment is the agent par excellence. It gradually improves the race and the individual and can even balance, after slow and laborious growing progression the extremes of the series Roxo, Therefore, in order to reverse the delay that prevented national development, Roxo proposed an intervention directed by medicine for the eradication of the three evils, which he judged decisive for the increase in cases of mental and phys- ical degeneration in the country: syphilis, alcoholism and Spiritism.
The diabolical ideas are already becoming rare. According to Henrique Roxo, the fight against Spirit- ism as a pathology was fully supported in science by proposing a peculiar disease, triggered from the familiarity with the dead: the episodic spiritualist delirium, characterized as It commonly develops by the frequency of spiritualistic sessions not the scientific Spiritism, which is studied by many scholars and must be respected.
It’s very different from this: it is the Spiritism of uneducated people, who easily believe in absurd things. According to Bueno de Andrade, even the Spiritism practiced with the scientific label in Brazil consisted of a worrying factor of advancement of mental illness: In Rio de Janeiro, not only do those groups of individuals who dedicate to the study of psychic forces in demonstrations that escape scientific experimentations are called spiritists, but also this gross practice of people who can barely read and write and who seek to predict the future, improve the fortune, solve complicated cases, etc.
Another student of Henry Roxo at the Medical School in Rio de Janeiro, Xavier de Oliveira, also promotes Spiritism as a sign of delay of people in need of medical intervention. Clearly, Xavier de Oliveira tries to associate Spiritism to a morbid experience of the religious feeling, and from this association, he tries to associate it with sub- version of the republican order and to a political behavior linked to the early stages of human society. By doing so, Xavier de Oliveira returned to the association al- ready advocated by Nina Rodrigues among Spiritism, pathological experience of religion and anti-republican trends.
Unlike Nina Rodrigues, however, he did not value the race as an explanatory factor but the socio-cultural environment. However, Xavier de Oliveira defended the relationship between religious morbidity, attested by delusions of mystical nature, and the behavior of social segments considered incapable of experiencing citizenship: antisocial and dangerous people, who tended to an anti-republican behavior.
Thus, the city becomes a setting where the behaviors considered deviant were most salient, which, for Brazilian psychiatrists of the period, was related to factors such as race, religious fanaticism, political contestation Engel, Doctors responded to the spread of Spiritism in urban areas, volunteering to the state to trigger the required hygienic measures. If religious morbidity spread more easily in the countryside, the increasing acceptance of Spiritism in urban centers attested the common origin of evil.
Ignatius Prophet: In the suburbs of this capital, where he operates now, his sermons certainly always result in no serious consequences to regret. In the countryside where he came from, though, and where the intolerant and bellicose fanaticism readily spreads and develops with the speed, the symp- toms and the consequences of a real epidemic, his action could not be fatal Xavier de Oliveira, In this educating and conducting work, medi- cine was, logically, a key component: Maybe the diagnosis of madness that Nina Rodrigues pronounced for him, or of crime, which alluded Euclides da Cunha, is improper or unfair unless transposing the terms: fools and crim- inals will be the representatives of an incapable civilization, who did not know or could not clarify and govern these rude masses, abandoned by ignorance to all the impulses, and at the moment of danger they brutally destroy what they failed to educate and lead when they do not terminate shamefully with their major force.
Canudos and Juazeiro are the two solutions, both testify against us Peixoto, It is then when Xavier de Oliveira shows the anti-republican character, contrary to rationality and citizenship, of the pathological mystical behavior, approaching the reading of Nina Rodrigues about Canudos.
The first, presented as a fanatic, capable of exposing their lives for the return of the monarchy and the second, as a regicide, which nevertheless have revealing night visions of colorful delusions explicitly monarchist. That is, the Conselor was not a complete lunatic. He captured reality, creating delusional ideas, where, according to Kraepelin, clarity and order of thought were kept. These delusional ideas, unlike schizophrenia, are not disconnected without any coherence; there is a relative coordination in them Kraepelin, Spiritism, as evidence of the same behavior contrary to the republican order, also appeared in Brazilian literature of the first half of the 20th century.
This rep- resentation of Spiritism as the opposite of republican civilized living appears in Coelho Neto, for example. This author built a highly symbolic character of this interdiscursive game. Published at the beginning of the republican period, the book tells the story of a former slave who loses her son and starts to attend spiritualistic sessions to be able to endure her pain. The madness is left for the former slave, who asserts herself and has as an epilogue her withdrawal from society.
To associate Spiritism to a constellation of imagery of clearly anti-republican values, doctors turned their backs both to the work of spiritualist coding and to the position of the Brazilian Spiritist Federation. In the first case, what is clear is just the opposite. Spiritism tried, in France in the mid-nineteenth century, to become certified as a new value in society, taking the revolutionary heritage.
In this sense, it tried to associate with the idea of republic, defending the secularization of educa- 9 Slavery ended in Brazil in , a year before the Proclamation of Republic.
As I mentioned in another paper, the spirit- ualist discourse tended to consolidate the bourgeois liberal values: What draws attention in the work of coding is their attempt to balance the world engendered by the bourgeois revolution, to provide stakeholders a quiet and harmonious view of life and soci- ety.
Thus, the spiritist discourse tended to the defense of a worker prototype, whose limit of understanding of what is real was limited to bourgeois liberal achievements Isaia, While the medical discourse related Spiritism with the interaction of pre and anti- republican values, there is a record of important names linked to the consolidation of the republican status quo, linked to the Brazilian Spiritist Federation.
Everton Quadros was the first president of the Brazilian Spiritist Federation, founded in , in the effort to centralize the struggle of the different spiritualist societies by institutional declaration of doctrine and against the privileged status of official religion, enjoyed by Catholicism during the monarchic period. On other hand, the Brazilian Spirit Federation undertook a struggle aimed at maintaining moral ascendancy over the followers of Spiritism across the country.
In this sense, it was trying to frame the several spiritualist societies to a model, which had an important component of identity in the book culture and in scientific praise.
Instead of explicitly taking the Republican campaign, they preferred to value the law of progress as something able to guarantee the political and social ideas based on reason.
However, it is undeniable the struggle for affirmation of Spiritism in Brazil, led by the Brazilian Spiritist Federation, which gathered an elite quite familiar with the Republican power and the book culture. The medical discourse at the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, however, did not recognize this effort towards literacy and science, also turning its back to the fa- miliarity with the circle of republican power enjoyed by the Brazilian Spiritist Federation. Being totally against Spiritism, disqualifying it, the doctors tried to protect and expand a recognized right to nominate reality.
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Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Joana Bahia. Renata Siuda-Ambroziak. Frew Ramos de Andrade. Ewa Stachowska. A short summary of this paper. PDF Pack. People also downloaded these PDFs.
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Pbotoshop intention is not only to maintain, but also to extend the existing cooperation, broadening both perspective and number of people involved, actively participat- ing and taking advantage of our projects of contemporary research on religious studies. Therefore, the book itself by no means should be regarded as complete or final result of our common endeavor — there are numerous elements, topics and issues that have been left out and omitted, waiting for their deeper exploration in the future.
While we obviously regret such deficiencies, we also believe that they could not hazel street como download avoided in a preliminary project like this one, constituting just a beginning of much closer jjezyka much denser cooperation of a, sui generis, Polish- Brazilian religious studies research team that we have just managed to build. We do hope the volume fully meets it objectives, including showing pro- spective directions and new fields for further networking between Poland and Brazil, facilitating common goals, jezyja expertise and bridging a trans- atlantic gap between the two countries.
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On behalf of the editors, I wish to all a frer reading. In the past collective phltoshop to a different religion than the native one were performed by means of an arbitrary act of those in power, often against the will of their subjects, according to the rule cuius regio eius religio.
In our times the market rules, fashion pressures or imitation predominate. Also, un- der their influence the inventiveness of bringing new religious movements into existence thrives. Schisms occurred in Poland at the beginning of the adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free century, which re- sulted in the establishment of two Old Catholic Churches independent of Rome: Polish-Catholic and Mariavite Polish Catholicism derives its origin from the Polish National Catholic Church in the United States of America, which was established as a result of a schism after a priest from a Polish parish, Fran- ciszek Hodura, was excommunicated.
E-mail: m. The conflict concerned mainly economic issues, the in- troduction of the mother tongue to the liturgy and the assignment of a priest from their own ethnic community to the parish.
The only adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free for a world falling into decline was to be the help of the Mother of God and the Perpetual Adoration of the Adobr Sacrament. The aims were to be fulfilled adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free developing and deepening two kinds of worship: the Marian devotion and the worship of the Holy Eucharist. Initially, Ссылка conducted their activity within the Roman Catholic Church. In under the pressure of the Hierarchy of the Catholic Church in the country, the Roman Curia disbanded the congregation of Mariavites both due to the criticism from the Roman Catholic clergy as well as the spreading worship of the founder.
As a result of her excommunication by Pope Pius X, 33 priests, 55 nuns and more than 44 thousand worshippers left the Catholic Church Mazur, ; Rybak, In the following years splits occurred in both those Old-Cath- olic denominations.
Other autonomic Churches of the Polish Catholicism1 and Mariavite2 traditions came into existence. Pluralism and freedom of choice provoke searching for the most adequate offer of outlook on life on the one hand, but on the other hand they lead to the establishment of new organizational structures. The Constitution of the Re- public of Poland recognizes the equality of churches and religious associations, whereas public authorities, maintaining impartiality in religious matters, ensure the freedom of their expression in public life The Constitution of the Republic of 1 Polish Catholicism: the Polish Catholic Church photosop the Republic of Poland sincethe Old Catholic Church in the Republic of Poland since and the Polish National Catholic Church in the Republic of Poland since Parents have the right to bring up their children according to their own convictions The Constitution of the Republic of Poland, Article 53 Item 3 4.
All citizens are guaranteed the freedom of conscience and religion: Freedom of religion shall include the freedom to profess or to accept a religion by personal choice as well as to manifest such religion, either individually or collectively, publicly or privately, by worshipping, praying, participating in ceremonies, performing of rites or teaching.
Freedom of re- ligion shall also include the possession of sanctuaries and other places of worship for the satisfac- tion of the needs of believers as well as the right of individuals, jezykw they may be, to benefit from religious services The Constitution of the Republic of Poland, Article 53, Item 2.
Furthermore, ecclesiastical law in Poland is regulated by: international agree- ments inter alia by the Concordat between the Holy See and the Republic of Po- land signed on 28 July and ratified on 25 March as well as by acts and directives issued by the legally authorized government bodies, especially by the Sejm of the Republic of Poland5. By there were 30 religious minorities registered in Poland Tokarczyk, After the fall of communism, when the curtain prohibiting access to 218 ideological trends of the Western world parted, suddenly their number grew.
In the s came jezyks adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free turning point in relations between the State and the Roman Adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free Church.
The idea of controlled atheisation was abandoned, reli- gious education was introduced arobe schools, ministerial service was permitted in hospitals, prisons, religious values could be present in the mass adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free.
The s were phootshop by a significant revival in spiritual quests, in- cluding outside of the Catholic Church. On the streets of larger cities, you could encounter preachers inviting to discussion meetings. In an euphoric state of catch- ing up and in the pursuit of novelties, especially young people seized the oppor- tunity. Other churches, religious associations and new religious movements also made use of the progressive liberalization.
Thanks to American, European and Asian gurus, teach- ers or missionaries, Eastern religions — Buddhist schools6 and быстрый youtube adobe premiere pro cc tutorial free download уже strands of Hinduism7 — found their followers. Various forms of new spirituality New Age came into existence as well as the phenomena combining religion, medicine, science, art or ecology, which fall freee the traditional classification of religious studies, although they play a similar adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free in the life of its members as historical religions.
Under the influence of contact, es- pecially photosshop Pentecostals, there were occurrences of defections from жмите сюда Catholic Church by a few groups of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal, which were subse- quently registered as autonomic religious associations8.
In there were Churches and religious associations outside the Ro- man Catholic Church entered in the register of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, all of which act on equal terms as well as registered on the basis of separate laws.
The numbers in total show the scale of religious plu- ralism in Poland. The right to establish new religious associations is granted ex- clusively to Polish citizens. Entry into the register is obtained after the approval of an adequate application submitted to the Department for Denominations and Na- tional and Ethnic Minorities of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, signed by at least adult Polish citizens who have the capacity to perform acts in law A necessary requirement to be fulfilled is a correctly phrased statute, which should define: 1.
The proper name of the church or religious association; 2. The area of activity and the registered address of its authorities; 3. The aims of activity and forms of conducting it; 4.
Membership rules; 5. The rights and obligations of members and the procedure and consequences of cessation of membership; 6. Governing bodies — the way of appointing and dismissing them, the scope of competence as well as the procedure of decision-making; 7. Sources of financing; 8. The procedure of introducing changes to the statute; 9. The way of representing the association outside as well as incurring liabilities; The adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free of appointing as well as the competence of spiritual persons; The conditions of the termina- tion of a religious association and the form of expending the remaining capital.
When the association is a part of an international organization, the statute should include information on the form of mutual connections and relationship. If establishing minor entities orders, churches, congregations, etc. Since January this limit fre been raised to people pursuant to the resolution of the Sejm. Since doctrinal principles must be included in the statute, together with a short history of the religion or the or- ganizational structure to which the association refers or from which it departs as a result of an inner adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free or only an organizational split.
In the case of ffee original association, established by its founding group, a description of the history of es- tablishing the religious community is also required.
Outside of official statistics, it is difficult to assess a certain number of reli- gious movements or spiritual communities which gain followers in Poland but do not seek to clarify adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free legal status. Therefore, it can be assumed that the variety of religious or quasi-religious groups in Poland some of them have gained legal personality as secular associations and foundations is much greater.
Moreover, we should also take into consideration those religious groups which do not have legal personality and have never applied for registration, despite actively recruit- ing new jzeyka and cultivating their own religious rituals.
Most of them — es- pecially groups of foreign origin and only recently present in Poland as well as in the /96137.txt of native groups with short history — conduct ongoing proselytizing ac- tivity in order to gain new followers.
They are also the most familiar and best-known in Polish society. The religious mosaic of registered churches and religious associations clas- sified according to the tradition they belong adobe photoshop cc 2018 zmiana jezyka free, or only refer to, is the jexyka in alphabetical order : 1.